automatons and more
is this a robot?
it is just mechanical and only does one thing
doesn't interact with the environment
be able to correct mistakes
a robot has software
these weren't practical machines, just toys
or is it a robot if it moves?
is it a computer if it is mechanical?

what were the jobs that needed to be done?
how were those jobs done before you had electronic digital computers?

before the computer

Census machines: pictures

Office machines:
history of the file cabinet, typewriter, adding machine, cash register
made possible by the American System of Manufacture
technological momentum--hard to change from the QWERTY keyboard

analog computers such as network analyzers
network analyzer

Eniac through minicomputers


ENIAC:  worlds first multipurpose, electronic, digital computer
Some people say ENIAC is not the first computer because it didn't store programs

How did computers transition from an expensive military tool to something useful for business: