Engineering Education by Apprenticeship

To the extent that you can separate engineering from mechanics, the profession grew slowly at first:

Civil Engineering:

With a couple of exceptions developed to meet military needs, there were no engineering schools until the 1860s.

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First major project initiated was the Middlesex canal--27 miles joining the Charles River with the junction of the Concord and Merrimack, with 20 locks, 8 aqueducts, and 48 bridges.   MapHistoryVisitor Centermap showing Merrimack and Charles rivers

 Middlesex Canal

 image credit
A similar story could be told about the Erie canal.  Erie Canal History

 Oliver Evans Flour Mill
Mechanical Engineering

What are the advantages and disadvantages of learning by apprenticeship?
What is the role of science in apprenticeship education?
Keep in mind that specialized knowledge is not necessarily scientific knowledge
This page written and copywrite Pamela E. Mack
last updated 8/30/05