Lienhard 16
postmodern interior design: staircase
Three issues:

The modern era has ended and we now live in a postmodern world
World War II changed the relationship between science and government 

 Lessons Learned from WWII
Vannevar Bush

Scientists involved in the war wanted several things after the war:  Continued military funding, a civilian Atomic Energy agency, and civilian funding source for basic scientific research 


Out of WWII came the belief that we now have the power of science.  This led to more government support for research.
First, military support for science
Impact of military funding
Federal Funding for Basic Scientific Research
Millions of Dollars (not adjusted for Inflation)
year Dept. Defense AEC/DOE NSF total
1952 31 34 1 121
1955 20 42 10 130
1960 168 104 68 590
1965 263 258 171 1,435
1970 317 287 245 1,926
1975 300 313 486 2,588
1980 540 523 815 4,674
1985 861 943 1,262 7,819
1990 948 1,505 1,586 11,286
1995 1,264 1,634 1,973 13,895
The totals are so much larger than the amounts for specific agencies because there is considerable basic research done by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and because NASA expenditures are counted mostly as basic research.
 (source: Table A)

National Science Foundation


Federal Funding for Research and Development
Millions of Dollars (not adjusted for inflation)
 (source: Table B)

year Dept. of Ag. Dept Defense AEC/DOE NASA NSF Total 
1951 55 1,123 158 45 .15 1,522
1955 72 1,529 253 43 10 2,045
1960 126 5,712 762 369 75 7,552
1965 225 6,797 1,241 4,952 187 14,614
1970 281 7,360 1,346 3,800 289 15,339
1975 420 9,012 2,047 3,064 595 19,039
1980 688 13,981 4,753 3,234 882 29,830
1985 943 26,792 4,966 3,327 1,346 48,360
1990 1,108 37,268 5,631 6,533 1,689 63,559
1995 1,380 34,362 6,145 9,015 2,149 68,755

Key idea--government supported research would bring benefits
this worked, for example the government created the internet, first Dept. of Defense, then NSF

The Cold War was the primary justification for all this military spending on science and technology:

Origins:


 planes lined up for Berlin airlift

The Nuclear Arms Race

Cold War:

Height:
Missiles and Satellites

 Titan ICBM
 Atlas ICBM
Reconnaissance was a big need:

 U-2
With all the rocket building, satellites were so clearly in the works that they were made part of the plans for the International Geophysical Year, a cooperative research effort in 1957-1958

 Sputnik 1, National Air and Space Museum
Enough work had been done on a project called Man-in-Space-Soonest by the founding of NASA (Oct.  1, 1958) so that a consensus had been reached:

 Mercury-Redstone 1
Once you have put people in space, what do you do with them? the key shift, however, came in Kennedy's political situation  
What caused the end of the cold war?

Transformation of Soviet Union

The Cold War ends:fall of the Berlin wall
Impact of the End of the Cold War on the U.S. Department of Defense The end of the cold war has left us with fewer larger goals, less sense of working towards a common goal
society and politics have become more divisive

innovation is more focused on consumers

What does Lienhard predict for the future?


This page written and copyright Pamela E. Mack
HIST 1220
last updated 10/19/2016

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