Gies 5

this chapter turns attention from the farmers to the cities
more widespread use of technology and trade between regions was as important as new inventions

what are the larger patterns we can see in all these examples
city organization:

Trade both depended on and encouraged agricultural surplus

Dramatic improvements of water mills

Most crafts were small scale

By the 12th century crafts were organized into guilds

Cathedrals showed the wealth of cities and attracted merchants
Castle designs also improved for defensive purposes
cobblestone roads and bridges were built