Nye 1

what was the energy system in the US before the industrial revolution

Native Americans:

European settlers:

clearing forested land to plant crops was terribly hard (read James Fenimore Cooper, The Pioneers)

The settlers depended on technology, though much of it was medieval

Industrious revolution:

a free market (with competition) emerged in the larger cities after 1800, but slowly

More on the early European settlers from Wilderness and the American Mind, by Roderick Nash: