the US was already the leader in mass production, but European technvehicle ownership 1900-2002ology was generally still ahead

Europeans were impressed by the assembly line but it took years to
adopt it even partially--less of a mass market

why were European markets smaller?

WWI made it essential to apply the assembly line to weapons

but American companies were slow to adapt their cars to European markets
European car makers used less mass production in order to be able to offer more models and more frequent model changes

workers and consumers valued individuality and tradition
the assembly line was  "a metaphor for an unwanted modernity"

mass production better fit the values of the Soviet Union
farm machinery was particularly needed, but farmers didn't know how to take care of it

European critique of mass production and Fordism

Fiat "hand built by robots"