PC sales 1980-1984
Mike Markkula and Apple
Apple's focus on good design and quality came from Markkula as much as Jobs
Apple's IPO in Dec. 1980 was an even bigger success
the first spreadsheet application, VisiCalc, was making computers more useful
some change in strategy to make the computer more a tool than a toy
manufacturing of the Apple II was not going well and becoming more businesslike was resisted
meanwhile in Aug. 1981 IBM started selling personal computers using a Microsoft operating system
competition but also legitimized the personal computer
Jobs is beginning to be the face of Apple though Markkula is president
Apple released a computer called Lisa in 1983 with a graphical user interface but it was too expensive
some of the ideas went into the Macintosh released in 1984

Fawn Alvarez at ROLM (manufactured rugged computers and business phone systems)
writing change orders went from being engineer's work to being women's work
discouraging, but also note that in new industries the patterns were not yet set, more opportunity
but manufacturing was declining in Silicon Valley

strategies for women

Sandra Kurtzig and her company ASK
at the same time personal computers are getting going, minicomputers are booming
software still hasn't taken shape as an industry
ASK moved cautiously towards an IPO, which was a success
employees did not own as much stock as in companies organized the new way--organized more like a family business

has the world really changed?