Pong console
Pong: Al Acorn and Nolan Bushnell

why would Pong be a success in competition with pinball games?
business patterns:
what is the culture here?
competitors quickly appeared selling similar arcade games for a lower price
Atari was in financial trouble
the solution was a home version of Pong to hook up to your TV in 1975
key to this is the game could be on a single integrated circuit, so harder to copy

Sears catalog page for the original
            home Pong

Niels Reimers and genetic engineering

the scientific discovery was being able to clip out a section from a strand of DNA and insert it elsewhere
this is the first possibility of genetically modified organisms
turning that into a patent was difficult
the scientists were uncertain about patenting
was it even patentable?
different scientists and universities working together

meanwhile, fears of genetic engineering were developing
Asilomar conference in Feb. 1975

back to Mike Markkula:
Intel kept up, developing new kinds of chips, but the industry was up and down
Markkula retired but did some consulting