Earley 5

during the time of the glaciers, forests on the southeast coastal plain were more like present-day Maine
longleaf pine forests spread over the last 15,000 years and reached their limits about 5,000 years ago
notice that Earley puts Native Americans in his section on Exploitation

birger figure from the Mississipian culture the southeastern US had a dense elaborate native civilization before Columbus, perhaps as sophisticated as the Mayans
            builders city
an image of life at Cahokia Mounds in Collinsville, Illinois

1.5 to 2 million Indians lived in the forests of the southeast when Europeans arrived, mostly in the river valleys, not the pine barrens

Which is the "original" forest?

Florida cattle drive
The first European settlers in the Piney Woods free-ranged cattle and hogs

painting of hog

Changing exploitation of the forest:
1. Mississipian, farming villages who hunt and gather firewood in the forest
2. ranching and herding cattle, both Europeans and Native Americans
3. naval stores