Principe intro and ch. 1

See discussion boards 1.1 to 1.4 for what we did in the online class meeting
notice that there are a wide range of ideas about what science is--I blame Magic Schoolbus for people having such broad ideas

a course in the history of science needs to narrow its topic, not try to cover all knowledge about the natural world, so we will differentiate:

formal or narrow science
people gathered around a telescope in venice
what changed in the scientific revolution?

This author's approach:

Some chronology:

500-350 BCE
Greece & Turkey
Pythagoras laid out the basics of geometry, Democritus said the world must be made up of atoms
384-322 BCE
northern Greece
wrote a series of volumes trying to gather all of human knowledge, including physics and natural history (biology and zoology)
Hellenistic period
275-120 BCE
Alexandria, Egypt
Archimedes prepared a map of the known world, Euclid gathered together the elements of geometry, Ptolemy systematized astronomy
Roman Empire
100 BCE-200 CE
Rome, Italy
Pliny tried to organize and explain natural knowledge, Galen systematized medicine
Early middle ages
400-1000 CE
learning nearly disappeared in Europe but writing about the natural world continued in the near east (in Greek and Arabic).  The Carolingian Renaissance in the 9th century brought more stability and the founding of cathedral schools
High middle ages
1000-1300 CE
rediscovery of ancient Greek science (mostly texts preserved in Arabic translation in the Muslim world), reconciliation of Aristotle with the Bible, development of the first universities teaching the logical method of scholasticism.  This is the Renaissance of the 12th century.
1300-1500 CE
first Italy then spread
Leonardo da Vinci, humanism
Scientific Revolution
Copernicus put the sun in the center of the solar system, Galileo provided experimental evidence and the beginning of a new physics, Kepler showed that planets move in ellipses, Newton completed the new physics (and invented calculus to do so)
medieval lecture
In the middle ages, there were books that were the authorities and had the definitive answer to any question--Bible, Aristotle, Euclid, Galen for medicine. 

Medieval universities


<big>Medieval Technological Revolution</big> printing

 image source
The printing press:

<big>Medieval Technological Revolution</big> impact:

Exploration: Medieval Technological Revolution
Magellan's ships
 Magellan rounds the southern tip of South America
              primitive cannon
 Early gunpowder weapons
Impact: Medieval Technological Revolution
  • sophisticated business practices developed in trading centers in the late middle ages--eg. banking and insurance in Venice
  • war was expensive so the way to be powerful was to get rich--kings encouraged trade and the search for gold
  • England in particular became rich off trade in slaves, sugar, tea, tobacco, and rum
  • trade encouraged the economy to gradually become more based on a free market rather than on customary prices and made opportunities for people to get rich--capitalism was emerging.  It wasn't quite what we think of today as capitalism but rather it was mercantile capitalism based on competition between nations.
  • Europeans gained pride from discovering a new world--they no longer believed that the ancient Greeks knew more than they did
  • New World: everything the Romans didn't know.  North and South America, Australia, East Asia, south Africa
  • exploration brought a flood of data about plants, animals, geography..., so much that new ways of organizing information were needed