Principe 2: The Connected World

Early modern natural philosophy saw a connected world, rather than the narrow worlds of science (the word scientist did not come into use until the 19th century)
they used different tools in their minds than the ones we use today

astrology vs. astronomy
astronomy: position and physics of stars
astrology: effect of the stars on our lives, but how?

astrology vs. astronomy
great chain of being
Ladder of nature from Plato (also called great chain of being or scala natura)
macrocosm-microcosm: the human body is ordered on a small scale in ways parallel to the stars and planets on a large scale--yet another idea of how everything is connected

Causal knowledge from Aristotle (difference between Plato and Aristotle)

Note that all these key thinkers lived before Jesus, in a society that worshiped other (pagan) Gods, but their ideas were adopted by Christians

Crucial point in all of this: one of the goals of early modern science was to study how everything was connected, whether in a chain or by parallels or by influences

Notice that the goal of this book is not to find the origins of modern science but to understand how science was different during the scientific revolution

We might look back and say their ideas were a mixture of magic and science.  But we need to think carefully about what we mean by magic, and what they meant

astronomy is to astrology as technology is to magic?
assumption here: science is theory, understanding, technology is practice, machines, being able to manipulate nature
the logic of correspondences (everything is actively connected to everything) gives us astrology, alchemy, and Magia Naturalis

Magia Naturalis (natural magic/mastery)

Practical applications

Religious motivation

Kircher frontispiece