Principe 5

different kinds of knowledge, then and now

how does medicine work today?

the principle that everything was interconnected meant that astrology was a big part of medicine
contrary cures: treat a fever with something cool (there have also been traditions of medicine that used similar treatment, such as homeopathy)

four humours

Physicians were university educated but surgery was done by less elite barber-surgeons
chemical medicine (mostly minerals or refined forms) was coming into increased use--antimony and mercury to cause vomiting and/or diarrhea
medieval anatomy lecture The traditional authority in medicine was Galen (130-200 CE, Hellenistic period)
Early microscopes had tiny glass spheres as the lens--what is going on is not so much new technology as eagerness to observe and the idea that the body was mechanical

Joan Baptista van Helmont (1579-1644) was a vitalist, focusing on the spirit of life rather than on the body as simply a mechanical system

Botany and zoology (=flora and fauna)

people were throwing out the old theories
it was hard to come up with something useful to replace them
science is growing in the direction of isolating and simplifying and experiment and away from everything is connected, but gradually